Welcome


My interest in the idea of sharing pedagogical purposes comes directly with the contact I have had with the Project for Enhancing Effective Learning at Monash University in Australia. Now each of these teachers were very active in establishing learning agendas with their classes. The impact they were having was inspiring. Each classroom tool can have a purpose beyond delivering content, and this needs to be shared.
I suppose the purpose of this website is collate, crystalise and open dialogues about how to increase this within classrooms. As the quote from Carl Bereiter illustrates this classroom methodology can empower our students.

Wednesday, 8 May 2013

A lesson plan.

I'm not sure if this at all useful, I may not even press Publish.This is a lesson plan I produced for our recent visit. The lesson is my normal lesson, with the only addition is some differentiation that I wanted to make obvious. It was an ardous task, writing explanations of what I intended to do, or why I was doing a particular task. It also includes all that information about my students that I carry in my head. It's this reason I may publish this. I think shows a whole lessons worth of pedagogical purposes. The lessons went very well , with the students finding stomatal pores "amazing" and students very confident about what Photosynthesis is and why it is important.

I think this lesson worked due to the contextual way  the content was structured, with Key  Questions . This helps with the engagement in the lesson. For example the starch testing practical was used to reinforce Photosynthesis an dnot just have a practical. The use of Formative assessment is used consistently throught the lesson. This is focussed on known misconceptions and the most important ideas being taught. Concession has been made for students remembering these ideas. For example planning to expose the students to the content at least 5 times over the session.
Bellwork
Image of an acorn and a tree and their respective masses. A slightly misleading question to draw out the misconception of “the soil”
Random name selector – 5 or 6 passively recieved student answers before seeking whole class vote. Who agrees, and why?
Listen out for Carbon dioxide, photosynthesis, the air, sunlight, water.
Make sure it is clear that plants do not have big holes beneath them where they have “ate” the soil.
BIG QUESTION- How do plants get food?” Just refer to the Bags, holes and leaves part of the learning journey.
Pedagogy explained
Students grouped-in mixed ability with word rich and word poor together.
Common misconception based on the research by Ross Driver.
Random name- for multiple responses- allowing a formative decision to made about “pitch” of input.
Big question- is just for the next two lessons. The following two on Photosynthesis a broader view is needed.
Learning journey + effective formative bellwork and clear objectives = culminative effect size of 2.91 Geoff Petty.
Intentions
Highlighted are the MAIN Focus for this session
Over the next 4 lessons student progress may look like this using SOLO taxonomy
Prestructural    
Plants get their food from the soil. CORRECTED
Unistructural    
Plants make their own food.
Energy from the sun.
Chlorophyll makes plants green
The leaf is the organ of Photosynthesis
Chlorphyll is a mixture
Multistructural
Name the raw materials and products
Chlorophyll traps sunlight
Recall the word equation
Palisade cells responsible for photosynthesis
Stomatal pores allow carbon dioxide in
Relational          
Chlorophyll found in chlorophyll traps sunlight
Explain how starch proves that photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll can trap light of different colours.
Explain the process  photosynthesis
Extended Abstract         
Leaves are thin to allow diffusion to act quickly
Describe How temperature, CO2 levels, sunlight levels effect the rate of photosynthesis
Plants store food as starch as it doesn’t dissolve easily.
The wider importance of photosynthesis is described
PLUS – Practicing Scientific drawing and observation skills
To form a better lead into the content and link to key question- key question and learner journey left until return from biome.




Input
In Biome for context.
Keywords on coloured paper to help introduce the word equation.
BLUE paper – Water
RED paper – carbon dioxide (as its toxic)
Orange paper- Glucose ( lucozade/ energy)
White paper – oxygen
Green paper chlorophyll
Yellow paper- sunlight


Teacher input -

Start by asking what’s in the bag? – water (poster start to construct word equation)
Then  where did the water come from?
Draw out knowledge soil, roots xylem to the leaves stomatal pores ( must be mentioned even as just small holes in the lower surface of the leaf)?
Students will come across these during this module. Some may have been covered already depending upon your teaching order.
Next ask “why would the plant take the trouble of sending water to the leaves?” a simple answer is useful here anything that suggest its going to be used- TELL them it’s for Photosynthesis.
“what else does a plant take in?” possibly rephrased if needed what does a plant breathe in?”
Some may respond Carbon dioxide others Sunlight. Take one and start to explain
Carbon dioxide – How do you think the carbon dioxide gets into the leaf? – refer back to the stomatal pores- you may want to show how thin it is and link this to diffusion over a short distance. Should have come across this in placenta, intestine, lungs before.
Sunlight- which organ of a plant absorbs the sunlight? And How do you know?
Darker upper surface, large surface area, green colour all can be linked to a leafs adaptation for photosynthesis.
Link the darker surface to the greater quantities of chlorophyll here, talk about how the lower surface would be in shade
All the while build up the word equation, bring this back to the classroom and use it as a relevant display.
Ask What do plants make with these? Or potentially rephrased as What do plants breathe out?
Structured input – designed to make connections to what they know and give students a sense of awe and place in the universe with regards to this reaction.
Coloured paper coding will be used over the subsequent four lessons as a memory aid. Its is part of classroom display that will be added too over the course of these lessons.
Students should leave this section really wanting to see Stomatal pores
Another misconception is students tend to use breathe instead of exchange gases. This will not be addressed during this lesson, but correct nomenclature will be used at all times and breathed, shown to less favourable. It is expected that many students will be sensitive to this during this lesson.
This is the first exposure to this information which will occur at least in 5 different ways with space in between. Nuthalls research shows this is how learning takes place.
LEARNING( Progress if that’s your bag) TAKING PLACE- Misconceptions purposefully  addressed.
Key terms such as raw materials, products, reaction photosynthesis, stomatal pore, chlorophyll, energy all introduced in a connected an coherent, contextual way.
Construct
Key ideas and what they are learning about are shared
Students reminded of how to use a light microscope in technical language.  Reference made to their work from the beginning to year 7 which is back on display.
Success criteria from previous project shared once more .
Students then use the microscope to observe Stomatal pores, epidermal cells and guard cells.  And make scientific drawings of them . UNDER THE TITLE OF DRAFT 1.
Target the following students to ensure understanding of task MH, HE, JS, NS
Allow students to focus on them and then begin to draw. This will be the briefest of attempts.
Stop and critique
Remind students of FEEDBACK NORMS.
Kind Specific and helpful feedback against the success criteria.
Then draft 2.
Differentiated questioning during the microscope part.
Consolidate questions-  ALL students
How does a plant make food?
What gas does the plant take in?
What is the other raw material?
What is photosynthesis?
What is the name of the sugar produced?
Extend questions- Where appropriate, dependent upon the response to prior questions.
Where does the carbon dioxide get in?
Is it good thing that water can get out?
Do you think all plants will have the same number of stomatal pores? Looking for ideas of evaporation.
Which surface of the leaf will get hottest?
Stretch questions- especially DR DH SD JR
HOW does CO2 get in? Diffusion and diffusion gradients? **Priority
Where would you expect to get most stomata?
Why do you think the plant has a waxy cuticle on its upper surface?
Introduce the idea of Xylem- other plant tissues.
This is now in context.
Yet more relevant display, PROGRESS demonstrated over time, students will quickly understand this technical language and use the microscope proficiently.
Differentiated support- these students require confirmation of the task.
Critique norms are BIG part of our school culture- how we speak and work and support one another.
Drafting is a normal activity valued by students, they see it as a way of enhancing the quality of their work – LEARNING (progress) will be demonstrated between these tasks. Dwecks open mindset is being encouraged by doing this process regularly.
Critique norms are always shared, to ensure a positive dialogue between students. It helps build our classroom community.
Differentiated questions and discussions within this task.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT OPPPORTUNITY. Check for understanding , re-explain where necessary.
This is true for the literacy of the targeted students.
The stretch questions are only for a few students. The introduction to this will be based on how they are getting on. Photosynthesis and its concepts are new and abstract. Working memory will only be holding up to 7 items of new knowledge, this is a priority and these are concepts where we could possibly
Demonstrate
Draw a leaf add arrows to show where Carbon dioxide has come from and a flow chart to show where water has come form to the leaf.
 Check spelling of keywords on the diagrams
Guard cell, stomatal pore, carbon dioxide.
For JW, MW, JS, MH, HE, JC, HD
Bring notes together.
Test do they know where the raw materials have come from.
Review
Formal review
Watch the videos clips- note down what photosynthesis is and why it is important.
What keywords should we add to the keyword list.
Return to context and importance of what is being learned.
Mention of global warming, places the context in a social sphere.
Literacy focus.
Bellwork session two
Which of the key questions can you now answer confidently, hesitantly, not yet?
Revisit digestion- when you break down starch with saliva in your mouth, what is made?
5 R stamps for those who go back through their books- in from a class consolidate reflective behaviour
Review and feedback, to promote student ownership of outcomes
Rewards
Learning Intentions
Driving question. How can we prove that a plant has photosynthesised?
MAIN focus for this session are highlighted
Prestructural    
Plants get their food from the soil. CORRECTED
Unistructural    
Plants make their own food.
Energy from the sun.
Chlorophyll makes plants green
The leaf is the organ of Photosynthesis
Chlorphyll is a mixture
Multistructural
Name the raw materials and products
Chlorophyll traps sunlight
Recall the word equation
Palisade cells responsible for photosynthesis
Stomatal pores allow carbon dioxide in
Relational          
Chlorophyll found in chlorophyll traps sunlight
Explain how starch proves that photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll can trap light of different colours.
Explain the process  photosynthesis
Extended Abstract         
Leaves are thin to allow diffusion to act quickly
Describe How temperature, CO2 levels, sunlight levels effect the rate of photosynthesis
Plants store food as starch as it doesn’t dissolve
PLUS – THINKING AND ACTING LIKE A SCIENTIST
Developing the idea that Scientists require evidence so that they can then make inferences about how our world works. This is an important way in which we

Input
Artist easel activity- Teacher models how to do this.
Differentiated task – two different reading levels- teacher issued task.
Students read highlighting key ideas.
Then draws images to represent this information
Folds sheets explains to partner using only the images.
Partner points out any gaps in knowledge
Student then adds images that are missing.
 Teacher to target JS, MW, HE, MH, JV, NS during this. AND any students that have found prior lesson difficult. This will need to identified during period 2.
Class practical – sort out jumbled instructions- weak readers supported by scrolling powerpoint.
Teacher gives correct method ensuring clear safety ethos.
Differentiation
To begin to bring together what Photosynthesis is.
Formative assessment opportunity. Peer assessment.
Demonstrating learning (progress)
Project for Enhancing Effective Learning strategy- designed to allow students to workout part or all of the instructions for themselves, encouraging ownership and understanding,
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITY- Student understanding of method checked before moving on
Construct
SO HOW DO YOU TEST A LEAF FOR STARCH?
Students test a leaf for starch.
Focus on safety. Praise safe behaviour- goggles etc, good teamwork
Highlight responsibility
Consolidation questions – what is starch made from?
What colour does IODINE turn when starch is present?
Demonstrate
Explain where the starch as come from.
Differentiated.
Key words and connectives. JR DR DH SD GH MH
Question prompts. AH
Gap fill task. JC NS MH LR
Hugely important task, consolidate what photosynthesis is.
This is very difficult, at this point of the 4 lessons. But the students should get there with the correct task. Differentiation
This task will be teacher marked and students will respond to it next lesson.
Review
Thumb tool on key questions
321 review
I need/want to know more about…..
2 skills/ attributes I have excelled at …
3 most important ideas are
Whole class response
And consolidation of key ideas- expecting a variety here, as this is how learning is. Nuthalls measures of uniqueness shows this.